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Explain the features of different generations of computer on the basis of technology?

First generation computers had the following features:

  • The Vacuum tubes were used as the main electronic component.
  • The Magnetic drum was used for primary storage medium.
  • They used magnetic tape for secondary memory and extensively used punched cards and paper tape for input device.
  • They were slow in operation and they performed a task in milliseconds.
  • They were very large in size and occupy large area.
  • They consumed very high electric power and produce a large amount of heat.
  • They were programmed in machine language. They had low programming capability.

Second generation computers had the following features:

  • They used transistors as the main electric component.
  • They used magnetic core for internal memory for storage device.
  • They used punched cards and paper tape for external storage. They had also used magnetic tapes and disks for external storage.
  • They were smaller, more reliable and powerful than the first generation computers.
  • They were faster and could perform tasks in microseconds.
  • They were programmed in machine language, assembly and high level language.

Third generation computers had the following features:

  • They used ICs (integrated circuits) chips as their main electronic components.
  • They used semiconductor memory for internal storage medium.
  • Processing speed was increased and measured in nanosecond.
  • They used keyboard as input device and monitor as output device for the interaction with users.
  • They used operating system. So, they could run different programs.
  • During the third generation period, minicomputers / personal computers were developed.
  • They were more reliable and better in performance.
  • They were programmed in high programming level language.

The fourth generation computers have the following features:

  • VLSIs and LSIs are used as the main electronic components.
  • Magnetic disk and optical disk are used for external storage. c. Semiconductor memories are used for internal memory.
  • Processing speed are increased and measured in picoseconds.
  • They are more versatile and diligence.
  • Many more high level languages have been introduced such as C , C++ Language.

The fifth generation computers have the following features:

  • They will be able to use intelligent programs and based on artificial intelligence (AI).
  • They will be able to understand and process natural language.
  • They will be capable for processing natural language.
  • They will have ability to solve the problems using data information already stored in the computer’s memory.
  • They will be able to recognize images and graphs
  • They will be able to use more than one CPU for faster speed.



What are the advantages and disadvantages of Star Topology?

The LAN topology in which all the computers and peripherals are connected with centrally located device is known as Star Topology.
Advantages of Star Topology are

  • The computers can be added or removed easily without affecting the network.
  • If any of the workstation or the connecting cable fails, it does not affect the remaining portion of the network.
  • The fault detection in the star topology is easier than others.¬†
  • It is easy to extend, so it is suitable for a large network.
  • It is one of the most reliable and used network topology.

Disadvantages of Star Topology are

  • Since each node is required to connect with the centralized hub or switch more cables are needed which increases the cost of installation.
  • The entire network fails if there is any problem on the hub or switch.
  • In comparison to Bus and Ring topologies, it is little expensive as it requires more length of cables and other controlling devices like hub and switch.



What is internet? List the different services provided by the internet.
The Internet is the interconnection of millions of computers across word wide in order to share data and information. It is the largest network formed by connecting computers on LANs, MANs and WANs of the whole world through the TCP/IP protocol to share data and information.
The services provided by the Internet  to the client computers are  WWW, E-mail, Chat , E-Fax,  Video Conference,  E-commerce , File transferring , Telnet, Newsgroup, tele-medicine, social network service, e-learning and so on.

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